The Star Wars galaxy is, in many ways, a vast sea of mysteries that fans are just waiting to have solved. Some mysterious are bigger than others and, in some cases, they're relatively miniscule details that the average moviegoer won't even notice. In the case of Han's gold dice, it's probably closer to the latter, but they are something that have been with the character since he was introduced in A New Hope in 1977 and remained with him until his death in The Force Awakens. Why does Han keep these dice with him? That has finally been explained in Solo. Sort of. It appears the history of these dice is a bit more complicated than we may have thought.
Warning: major spoilers ahead for Solo: A Star Wars Story. The beginning of the movie features Han Solo (Alden Ehrenreich) trying to make his way off of his homeworld of Corellia with his lady friend Qi'ra (Emilia Clarke). This involves him stealing a speeder and, prior to an action-filled chase sequence, he hangs his gold dice on the windshield. Qi'ra and Han make it to the spaceport. Unfortunately, the people they were running from eventually catch up and they two are separated for several years. Before their parting of ways, Han gave Qi'ra the gold dice for luck.
Later in the movie, after Beckett (Woody Harrelson), Han and Chewie botch their heist, they have to meet up with Dryden Vos (Paul Bettany) in order to try and negotiate a deal in order to save their lives. Once aboard Dryden's space yacht, Qi'ra and Han are unexpectedly reunited. She is then sent with Beckett, Han and Chewie to find Lando Calrissian (Donald Glover) who can secure them a ship for the Kessel Run. As it turns out, Qi'ra kept the gold dice this whole time and actually gives them back to Han. They may have turned out to be good luck afterall.
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Eventually, once the second heist goes wrong and the Bantha fodder hits the fan, Qi'ra betrays Han, after Dryden Vos is killed and Beckett bites the dust at the hands of Han's blaster. Despite this, we see the scruffy looking nerf herder hang the dice in the cockpit of the Millenium Falcon, just as Luke found them in The Last Jedi, before he and Chewie make their way to Tatooine and the credits roll. Basically, these dice represent Han's old life on Corellia and his first love. A reminder of things both good and bad in the galaxy.
Solo: A Star Wars Story does not, however, explain where the dice came from in the first place. Not only that, but what we come to learn of the dice in this movie clashes somewhat with what has been explained about them in other canon Star Wars material. The dice first appeared briefly in the cockpit of the Falcon in A New Hope, but the dice featured then were more traditional looking and didn't have the symbols on them that can be seen in Solo and The Last Jedi. So there is an inconsistency there to deal with. In Greg Rucka's novel Smuggler's Run: A Han Solo & Chewbacca Adventure, it's explained that Chewbacca hung the pair of "novelty chance dice" in the cockpit as a joke years ago.
What Han has in his possession in Solo clearly are not "novelty chance dice." However, what was featured in A New Hope could possibly be written off as such. Is it possible that there are two pairs of gold dice hanging around inside the Falcon? Maybe, but there is yet another inconsistency within the canon that needs to be explained as well.
The famous Sabacc game in which Han wins the Falcon from Lando is featured in Solo. In The Force Awakens: The Visual Dictionary, it's said that Han's gold dice were "used in the 'Corellian Spike' game of sabacc in which he [Han] won the Millennium Falcon from Lando Calrissian." But, as we see in the movie, the dice are in Han's possession long before the game ever takes place. So what gives? This is a question that the folks at Lucasfilm's story group may have to address someday. For now, Star Wars will have to take what was offered up in Solo and perhaps ignore some of the canon inconsistencies.